“They need to feel luck, they need to arrive at half-time winning 2-0, 3-0. Ask them.
“If they tell you they don’t trust me, that is the only thing that can make me resign. I don’t know next match, in two matches, in three. It makes me realize how big I was, how big I am.
“When you win and you win titles and you are champion, life is easy. The players at the table.”
Mourinho also claimed he is enjoying some aspects of what he has called the worst run of his managerial career.
“It makes me understand how big a guy I am,” he said. The only thing. It’s easy to be what you are.
“In this moment it’s not so easy and my feelings – I’m so unhappy with the m88 sport feeling of defeat but I am so happy with myself with the way I am facing this.”
And after citing the decisions of referees, the players’ lack of confidence and a series of individual mistakes as contributing factors in Chelsea’s predicament, Mourinho is now relying on the intervention of “Mother Nature”.
“Only Mother Nature can do it,” he said.
Jose Mourinho says he will only walk away from Chelsea if the club’s players tell him he is no longer wanted.
Saturday’s home defeat to Southampton was the champions’ fourth in eight Premier League games and sparked an astonishing seven-minute monologue from Mourinho on Sky Sports after the game.
Among a string of accusations and explanations he said Chelsea would have to “sack the best manager in their history” to get him to leave Stamford Bridge.
But as the dust settled Mourinho tempered that claim slightly, in a clear answer to those suggesting tension between the manager and some of his playing staff.
“People can say what they want. They need it. But not fake sources. For sure they will get that confidence back, for sure.”
. It’s easy to be proud. I’m not crying, I’m not desperate. I think you should go straight to the players,” said Mourinho, who has received the public backing of John Terry.
“Get a table at Cobham next week – John Terry doesn’t go to the national team, Diego Costa doesn’t go, Ramires doesn’t go. “I am not afraid. They need to fly without pressure, they need to play and feel that everything is going in their favor.
“Not to feel this pressure, this panic, this negativity. Decisions against, unlucky, mistakes. Time will bring it
They have been struggling to get up from the bottom position at the Premier League table but unable to do so with their five points. But the fact that the m88 club has not won any crucial trophy since their FA Cup win in 2003-04 might put his stay in danger if they fail to hold on to even the fourth place in the current season of Premier League.
Roberto Mancini:- Mancini’s contract has been revised and has been extended until 2017. In every Premier League match, fans are expected to buy football tickets and turn up in great numbers to cheer for their team and players are obvious to display their best games. Sir Alex has managed to keep up the expectation with his squad at the top of the summit. The latest one to lose his job was Chelsea’s Roberto Di Matteo whose eight month stay at Stamford Bridge came to an end following the blue’s 3-0 defeat against Juventus in Turin. Wins have been crucial for every team and mostly for managers. They have got a lot of great players but they aren’t been able to display their games. Likewise the pressure lies on managers to come up with their new and unique strategies that can help their squad win matches. The club is in the 18th place in the League table and they have got some crucial matches coming up. Mary’s Stadium is definite of getting sceptical.
Arsene Wenger:- Arsene Wenger has been associated with Arsenal for past sixteen years, his stint has been longer than any other manager with Arsenal. His termination could even precede Arsene Wenger’s if his team fails to win matches and retain their top of the table position in the Premier League.
Football is a team game and if players, management and fans come as one on fields any match can be won swiftly irrespective of the opponents you are playing against. . Their matches against 3 teams positioned in the lower half of the table including Norwich City, Wigan Athletic and Aston Villa will be crucial and Dermott’s fate remains dependent on the outcome of these matches.
Mark Hughes:- The QPR’s manager left Fulham to improve things with QPR but their performance in the league has been devastating and are the second team without any win.
Brian McDermott:- His stay with Reading has not changed club’ fate much. They are the first in line to face the heat of the poor performances of their team. We have presented below a list of five of them and have tried to analyze the reasons which have brought them to this situation. The Frenchman’s association with the English club has been remarkable and he took up the Gunners to victory in numerous occasions. If Hughes fails to improve the situation he could be terminated any time after the New Year.
Nidgel Adkins: – Southampton board came in Adkins’ favour recently to confirm that his job is save with the club. If Adkins fails to improve the situation before Christmas his stay at St.
If you know a bit of Football then it is inevitable that you must be a religious Premier League follower. Yet the Italian’s stay at the City of Manchester Stadium looks doubtful. The poor performance of some of the team’s in this season of Premier League has put in danger the job of many bosses. Steve Clarke’s performance has been commendable with the Baggies being at the third place before being pushed down by Chelsea and Tottenham to the fifth place on the basis of goal difference.
With Gomez not offering a great deal else to the side beyond his goals, it is difficult to see that the Germany international’s first-team chances will be enhanced with the arrival of Pep Guardiola. The long pursuit of Bayer Leverkusen forward Andre Schurrleended successfully last week, but there remain areas of the side thatMourinho will undoubtedly be keen to strengthen. A decent offer would surely be considered by Bayern and Mourinho is said to be interested.
Mario Gomez (Bayern Munich)
Robert Lewandowski (Borussia Dortmund)
(https://twitter.com/JasonLeMiere) Follow Jason Le Miere on Twitter
The Uruguay striker has earned a reputation as one of the world’s leading strikers having scored 78 goals in the past three Serie A season for Napoli. While Chelsea are believed to be interested in Cavani, that lofty figure may yet persuade the Blues to look elsewhere.
After being highly-touted for several seasons, the 23-year-old looks set to join one of Europe’s elite this summer having agreed last year to stay for one more season on the condition that he could leave if an offer of a[logical not]30 million (A[pounds sterling]25.5m) is forthcoming. His priority appears tobe capturing a leading striker, with neither Fernando Torres nor DembaBa displaying the requisite quality required for a side aiming forPremier League and Champions League glory. Chelsea are believed to be among a list of clubs chasing his signature, which also includes Juventus and Chelsea. The Poland international wants to join Bayern Munich. His fun88 club, understandably, have denied that request and they have also now said that he will be seeing out the remaining year of his contract. But that could yet change if rumored-suitors Chelsea make a substantial bid that gives Dortmund the chance to recoup some money on the 24-year-old rather than lose him for nothing in 12 months’ time.
Wayne Rooney (Manchester United)
There continues to be no word from either Rooney or Manchester United about the future of the England international after Sir Alex Ferguson claims that the England international asked to leave Old Trafford was followed by a denial from the player’s camp. Despite averaging close to a goal a game between 2010-12, the physically-strong front man found himself out of the Bayern Munich team on his return from injury last season. His record also means that Napoli feel justified in refusing to countenance any offer for their star man that doesn’t meet his a[logical not]63 million (A[pounds sterling]53.5m) release clause. Chelsea are said to be among the club’s monitoring the 27-year-old’s situation, although it remains to be seen whether United would sell him to a Premier League rival.
Edinson Cavani (Napoli)
Chelsea have already made their first move in their attempts togive Jose Mourinho the opportunity to repeat the initial success heenjoyed in his first spell in charge at Stamford Bridge and more are setto follow. Jovetic is not the target man type of striker that Mourinho typically favors, however, and it remains to be seen how he would be used were he to move to Stamford Bridge.
Perhaps the best all-round and most in-demand striker in the world right now, Lewandowski is locked in a battle over his future with Borussia Dortmund. The club has been linked withsome top names in recent weeks, with five, in particular, appearing tobe firmly on their radar.
Chelsea’s management have stated the target is for zero cash funding from the owner in 2009/10.
With total debt to the owner in the region of three-quarters of a billion pounds, 11 million a year is barely a rounding error.
It’s current to 2008, the last year available:
Chelsea’s revenues are about 200 million a year.
With player wage costs of 172 million, Chelsea remains the highest spender by some distance, over 50 million above the next highest m88 club, Manchester United.
Chelsea became the first club to report over 80 million gross transfer spending in one season.
Owner Roman Abramovich injected a further 123 million into Chelsea in 2007/08, to take his overall investment in the club to around 760 million in the five years under his control. Hopefully in the days to come the real number will be leaked to the press. The value of the deal is not known. has renewed its sponsorship deal with Samsung. The old deal was worth 11 million a year, and Reuters reports the new pact is an improvement on the old one.
It had better be. All Rights Reserved.
Last Updated Jul 22, 2009 5:37 PM EDT
Chelsea F.C. If it isn’t closer to Manchester United’s 20 million a year, then it wasn’t worth signing.A selected list of football sponsorship deals:100 million Arsenal’s 15-year deal with Emirates80 million The four-year deal Manchester United signed with Aon takes effect next summer75 million Juventus have a five-year contract with Tamoil, the international oil company68 million Bayern Munich’s four-year deal with T-Home55 million Chelsea’s new deal with Samsung is reportedly more than this five-year deal was worth in 200538 million Real Madrid’s three-year deal with Bwin.com, the Austria-based online gaming company7.2 million Liverpool’s annual fee from Carlsberg expires in 2010BNET’s previous coverage of football advertising:
2009 CBS Interactive Inc.. Chelsea is one of fewer than 10 global soccer brands, and yet gives away the equivalent of dozens of hours of free TV advertising for less than $18 million every year. If there’s a football club on the planet that undervalues its sponsorship deals, it’s Chelsea. To give you an idea of how insignificant Samsung’s old deal with Chelsea was in terms of the club’s overall finances, here’s a digest of the sections on Chelsea in Deloitte’s annual football finance report
It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.
This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.
In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.
Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.
Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts.
For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.
First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.
In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.
Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. None of them work.
Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.
None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.
Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!
. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.
The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.
Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.
In that spirit. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.
How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.
Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. My study suggests that’s not the case.
Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.
Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.
However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.
Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.
For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all
You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks
Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing
It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip
Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each
5. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.
Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Adam Scott – 11 to 1
T-11. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1
Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.
At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1
4. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each
Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.
At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.
Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.
T-17. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1
Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.
3. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!
Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each
Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.
Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.
T-7. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.
Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.
Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1
The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.
Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?
6. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each
1. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.
T-13. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each
Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.
2. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1
Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. He’s a big threat this week to win.
David Toms won this tournament in 2011.
The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Nuff said. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).
Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds
T-19. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th
some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. I wish they would have kept
the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. $2.00 Blackjack is
only available occasionally. I have
never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see
this Vegas Hotel on television.
The New York New York Hotel and Casino
was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when
it was first opened. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of
many people in Las Vegas. It is a popular spot for
amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there
you can drive your car to the top. You are right down by the
Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the
downtown area of historic Las Vegas. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can
offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad
odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11
convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.
There are many casinos in Las Vegas
Nevada. I assume the
inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. They usually have some video gaming machines. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite
of Playboy readers. I disagree.
The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real
New York but a lot cheaper. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.
From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky
keno rooms with ragged carpet. Do not
attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the
place is busy. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented
so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.
If you visit the Palms Casino and
Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of
the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich
and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.
The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on
The Las Vegas Strip. If the Aliens
ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel
In 2007 they replace most of the
Egyptian themed items and decorations. Regardless of your budget you can find
somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.
If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike
Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well
rewarded with your choice of location. The appearance is drastically different,.
The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a
corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. If it is
not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the
Palms Casino and Resort. You can also walk if you are not lazy. The first is the shape of the
building. Many people now days consider the New York New
York Hotel and Casino to be slightly on the tacky side. Fremont Street. At least they
have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.
The Palms Casino and Resort is a
favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a
sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.
New York New York Hotel and Casino
At night time the Palms Casino and
Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. The Luxor Hotel and
Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building
that was originally there. Just because you may want to
visit an expensive Las Vegas Casino that does not mean you have to
The 7-11 convenience stores in Las
Vegas are everywhere. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV
shows. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on
television. I wonder when
Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the
Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of
Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.
Regardless of where you want to gamble
in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,
expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap. When you are speeding up to the
top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the
building onto the roller coaster. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the
soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete
literally melting my shoe soles away.
While visiting the Luxor Hotel and
Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica
Bridges. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you
do not walk the strip. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun
Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.
Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00
The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is
located in my favorite part of Las Vegas. I love the
The best way to make money betting on horse races is to try to develop into a complete horse player. Learn some good angles, and systems, but also have people you can rely on for a tip or two now and then. Read everything you can get your hands on relating to the races and keep an open mind. Developing your mind is the number one way to beat the other people who go to the races and try to get lucky.
Then there are the people who get horse racing tips, sometimes free tips, that they use to make money. As we all know, when it comes to information, there is good information and bad information. When I used to own race horses, I heard plenty of both. I got so I could tell which bits of info were good and which ones were stinkers, usually just by knowing the source. Some people gave good tips and others stunk.
A good horse racing angle is something that comes along that a wise bettor can take advantage of. It may be something to do with the odds, weights, jockeys, etc. It is often a combination of circumstances that the average horse player doesn’t see or understand but stands out like a flashing light to the wise player.
How do you prepare yourself to go to the race track? You probably put on a clean shirt, brush your teeth, comb your hair, and head for the races. While you might look presentable and they won’t stop you from entering the premises on grounds of poor hygiene, are you really prepared? I mean prepared to bet real money on the races and to win with your bets.
While luck does play a small part in winning when you’re gambling, the pros who make a living at it win by being better prepared than the average player.
Going to the race track all the time and working at it like a full time job isn’t easy. You have to make connections, learn a good system, and then keep your ears and eyes open. Over the years I learned a lot of ways to lose at the races and a few good ways to win. But even when I was winning, it wasn’t easy. I had to work very hard.
People who win money betting on horses know how to handicap the horse races. Many of them have a system they’ve used for years, though they may have tweaked it a little here and there because things do change. Other people use an angle.
Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Gateway to the West
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
The Road to Zero
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
***. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
From a front-line perspective
Update note:Dr. Louis.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
This makes little sense.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Less Than Zero
Dr. . . 1952-1953).
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
But, it doesn’t end there.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . It was so unusual at the time . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
AIDS now had a face.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role.
Mr. . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St